The Captivity and Resoration of Judah

604-445 BC

640-608 BC

Why Did Josiah Have to Die?

Josiah, who ruled from 640 to 608 BC, was the last good king of Judah. Jerusalem would go into captivity in 597 BC., just 11 years after his death. Good kings, protected by God, should die of old age, so mystery surrounds Josiah's death at the battle of Megiddo at the hand of Pharaoh Necho II.

625-539 BC

The Tyrant of Tyrants

Babylon was the mirror opposite of the United States. They both had absolute military power over other nations. The Babylonian empire could have chosen to do anything it wanted and it chose to plunder and control other nations for its own enrichment.

608-586 BC

The Last Four Kings of Judah

The last four kings were like preachers' kids, who were raised in a good home but chose to turn their backs on God. Between their father Josiah and the prophet Jeremiah, they should have known better. When rebellious young people in their twenties run the country, it's not good.

625 BC

Two Complaints, Five Woes, and a Prayer

Habakkuk was a minor prophet of major importance. Unger says that Habakkuk "is couched in sublime poetry, reflecting the classical era of Hebrew prophecy". Not only does he warn his nation about impending invasion from the Babylonians, but he also does some fundamental teaching about how God deals with nations.

605-535 BC

The Advantages of Prison

Daniel shows us the immense influence that the Jews had on the nations around them during their captivity. God used his people to get to the most powerful men on the planet, such as Nebuchadnezzar, Cyrus the Great, and perhaps King Nabonidus.

593-586 BC

When God's House Gets Dirty

Ezekiel's ministry overlapped the prophecies of Jeremiah and Daniel, during the last seven years of Jerusalem's existence, before it was razed by Nebuchadnezzar. As a priest, Ezekiel's focus and concern were on the temple, God's holiness, and God's reputation.

559-530 BC

The Benevolence of Cyrus the Great

Cyrus the Great, the first ruler of the Persian empire, reversed previous decisions by sending the Jews back to their homeland. How do we understand this change of attitude in terms of a sovereign God?

6th Century BC

The Rise of the Philosophers

Greek philosophers as well as philosophical religions, such as Buddhism and Confucianism, began around the 6th century BC, when the Old Testament was coming to a close. Before that, philosophy was unknown and the world believed that truth had to be revealed from beyond. This was such a dramatic shift in thinking that we need to understand it in order to understand the ancient world.

520 BC

One Chosen Link

Haggai addressed his prophecy to Zerubbabel, who was in David's lineage to be a king of Judah. He was the key man to lead the people to rebuild the temple, which they were not doing at the time. Little did he know that his life's purpose extended far beyond his own lifetime.

520 BC

Back in the Saddle Again

Zechariah is the most messianic of all the prophets. Israel is back home and looking forward to its coming Messiah.

515-458 BC

Palestian Opposition

The Greeks called the people around Judah Palestinians as far back as the days of Judah. The people around the Jews have always opposed them and tried to overthrow them.

480 BC

Respect for Xerxes

In the midst of the Greek revolt, Xerxes' queen decides to stage her own household rebellion. That's when Esther steps in.

445 BC

The Wall Before Trump

Jerusalem's rivals didn't think it needed a wall, but we all need boundaries.

433-425 BC

Finishing Well

Malachi makes final adjustments before Israel prepares for Hellenism and their Messiah.